IN ORDER TO GIVE LEGITIMACY TO A COMPANY LIKE THE CHARTER OF THE VIRGINIA COMPANY OF LONDON A CONSTITUTION IS PART OF THE CORPORATE BOOK. REGISTRARS FOR REGISTRIES WERE ASKED TO TAKE OATHS OF OFFICE IN ORDER TO ADMINISTER TITLES PLACED IN THE REGISTRY UNDER THE CARE OF THE REGISTRAR WHO USUALLY WORKED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE KING OR QUEEN CORRONATED BY A RELIGIOUS ORGANISATION AND/OR UNDER SIMILAR TYPE OF STRUCTURES.
Evidences of asking people to take oaths to be officials have passed on like George Washington (U.S. President), William Penn spoken of in many masonic credible documents on the internet see further below, Abraham Lincoln (U.S. President), Rev. James Anderson, Benjamin Franklin, Lloyd M. Bentsen, Sherman Adams – Governor of New Hampshire and US Congressman, Ethan Allen, Edmund Burke, John Claypoole, William Daws, John Hancock, Nicholas Gilman, Delegate to the Continental Congress, signer of the U.S. Constitution, member of the Congress and the United States Senate. St. John’s Lodge No. 1, Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
First examples on how William Penn chose to frame a system to bring peace and harmony, tranquility and safety amongst the people. Many have taken oaths and few have not according to Penn himself.
The source states “William Penn, the Quaker proprietor of Pennsylvania, a religious dissenter and Mason,(7) was empowered to establish a government for his colony in accordance with his philosophy.” Which today is now known as Pennsylvania.
Penn as the leader called upon the governors of the other 12 colonies. So a total of the thirteen colonies are Province of New Hampshire, Province of Massachusetts Bay, Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut Colony, Province of New York, Province of New Jersey, Province of Pennsylvania, Delaware Colony, Province of Maryland, Colony and Dominion of Virginia, Province of North Carolina, Province of South Carolina and Province of Georgia attempted to form a frame of governance and attempt to charter such.
One of William Penn’s attempted charters was from and for a joint stock company called the “Free Society of Traders of Pennsylvania”.
In April 1681 Penn wrote “Some Account of the Province of Pennsylvania” in order to attract investors and emigrants. Every master and servant who had served one’s time would be allowed fifty acres. He hoped that rich Quakers would buy blocs of 5,000 acres for £100, and he deferred the quitrent of a shilling per hundred acres until 1684. Penn and some London Quakers also formed a joint stock company called the Free Society of Traders in Pennsylvania with the minimum investment of £25 that was open to colonists. The company immediately purchased 20,000 acres and appropriated £2,000 pounds for factories in Philadelphia to develop the fur trade, farming, tobacco, and fishing.”
This shows how legal structures via the mechanism of trust how they used the value system to build their colonies based on the currency being in this instance English pounds and silver which also would have been Spanish milled silver dollars and not the paper based fictional currency as testified by Dr. Lawrence Parks to the Congressional Committee in the year 2011 A.D.
Second one was Penn’s attempts that was labelled as “A Plan of Union for the American Colonies”, First Frame of Government, was adopted on April 25, 1682.
Penn was invited to “The Lords of Trade …..to present his scheme in writing, and in 1697 Penn put forth “A Plan of Union for the American Colonies.” This also attempted to bring about measures needed to bring tranquility and safety.”
The Lords of Trade would include the Archbishop of Canterbury showing that there was a distinct interconnection between church and state in public commercial affairs and the land. Today one can see that is still continuing for example religious organizations that have banks.
In 1697, William Penn goes on further to create Postmaster Generals for North America to facilitate the creation of a postal system. He also called a conference of the twelve governors of the colonies; they discussed the creation of a currency, and mint.
and William Penn https://books.google.ca/books
William Penn’s First Frame of Government, was adopted on April 25, 1682 and progressed to the Charter of Privileges that was designed to insure freedom to the citizens of his province. The version adopted on October 28, 1701 endured for three-quarters of a century and then became the basis for Pennsylvania’s state constitution, adopted in 1776.
Charter of Privileges http://www.constitution.org/bcp/penncharpriv.htm
One of Penn’s attempted charters was the Charter of Privileges that was for insuring freedom to the citizens of his province. This version was adopted on October 28, 1701 and endured for three-quarters of a century and then became the basis for Pennsylvania’s state constitution, adopted in 1776.
The intent and philosophy of fraternal orders and religious organizations was to try to set peace on the land and good will to all men. How they go about in most all of the attempts was first creating these oaths so hence in order to get into office one would have to say an oath. To get into a fraternal order one would have to say an oath.
The Lords of Trade would include the Archbishop of Canterbury showing that there was a distinct interconnection between church and state in public commercial affairs and the land. We continue to evidence that today one can see that this is still continuing for example religious organizations that have banks and treasuries of their own as well.
Other attempts were made to frame Charters and Constitutions to guide the people who were administrating while working in these entities who some were members of the fraternal orders while running Treasuries.
Around the same time as William Penn’s last attempted charter called the Charter of Priviledges that lasted up to the year 1776, the U.S. Department of the Treasury have its origins of beginnings around this time. The U.S. Department of the Treasury makes mention that it started 13 years before 1789 that brings us to about the year 1776 which is the same year of the adoption of the Pennsylvania’s state constitution.
Other attempts from other fraternal orders and other commercial entities continue to attempt to frame Charters and Constitutions to guide both commercial and public entities along with the members of the fraternal orders who may be running Treasuries. While framing some form of guidance many of these charters and constitutions call for oaths to govern through public administrators and government officials said to be carrying out their duties of trust.
The work of the late said Rev. James Anderson, Scottish writer and Minister who was ordained in the Church of Scotland in 1707 was reported to have had a large sum of money in the South Sea Company of 1720. However, Anderson is best known for his association with Freemasonry.
He is said to have written “THE CONSTITUTIONS OF THE FREE-MASONS. CONTAINING THE History, Charges, Regulations, &c. of that most Ancient and Right Worshipful FRATERNITY. For the Use of the LODGES.”
Rev. James Anderson wrote
“Adam, our first Parent, created after the Image of God, the great Architect of the Universe, must have had the Liberal Sciences, particularly Geometry, written on his Heart; for even since the Fall, we find the Principles of it in the hearts of his Offspring, and which, in process of time, have been drawn forth into a convenient Method of Propositions, by observing the Laws of Proportion taken from Mechanism: So that as the Mechanical Arts gave Occasion to the Learned to reduce the Elements of Geometry into Method, this noble Science thus reduc’d, is the Foundation of all those Arts, (particularly of Masonry and Architecture) and the Rule by which they are conducted and performed.”
This shows the strong relationship and interaction between the church religion, government, commerce and free masonry-fraternal orders. Of course this continues into this very day.
While the intent and philosophy of fraternal orders and religious organizations was to try to set peace on the land and good will to all men, how they go about this in most all of their attempts was first creating these oaths so hence in order to get into office one would have to say an oath. To get into a fraternal order one would have possibly say an oath. The individual and the collective would be expected to uphold those oaths and consequences and was always equated to some type of penalty and be born out physically, financially and/or spiritually.
Some more history on oaths from William Penn Governor of Pennsylvania himself. Penn wrote “A Treatise of Oaths” in 1675 so that Quakers would not be imprisoned for refusing to take an oath of allegiance or to swear in court. He cited 122 authorities from Pythagoras to William of Orange on the folly of exacting oaths.’
The problem with many members of a fraternal order and/or other organizations is that they would possibly have to swear an oath that nullifies any oath that they make in office as a public officer and administrator.
Please see according to the American Heritage Dictionary of the American Language, “the Kol Nidre, is the opening prayer recited on the eve of Yom Kippur, containing a declaration of the annulment of all personal vows and oaths.” It is based on the following declaration from the Talmud;
“He who wishes that his vows and oaths shall no value shall stand up at the beginning of the year and say: ‘all vows which I shall make during the year shall be of no value. “‘
The prayer of “KOL NIDRE” is found in Vol. 8, page 539 of the Jewish Encyclopedia. It states:
“All vows, obligations, oaths, anthems, whether called Konan, konas, or by any other name, by which we may be bound, from this day of atonement unto the next… we do repent. May they be deemed absolved, forgiven, annulled and void, and made of no effect. They shall not bind us nor have any power over us. The vows shall not be reckoned vows; the obligations shall not be obligatory, nor the oaths be oaths.”
This same prayer may also be found almost word for word in the volume of “REVISED FESTIVAL PRAYERS,” published in 1919 by the Hebrew Publishing Company, New York.
Also see page 183 of the Masonic Handbook and it states:
“Whenever you see any of our signs made by a brother Mason, and especially the grand hailing sign of distress, you must always be sure to obey them, even at the risk of your life. If you’re on a jury, and the defendant is a Mason and makes the grand hailing sign, you must obey it; you must disagree with your brother jurors, if necessary, but you must be sure not to bring the Mason guilty, for that would bring disgrace upon our order. You must conceal all crimes of your brother Masons except murder and treason, and these at your own option, and should you be summoned as a witness against a brother Mason, be always sure to shield him. Prevaricate, don’t tell the truth in this case, keep his secrets, forget the important points. It may be perjury to do this true, but you are keeping your obligations.”
Wikipedia discusses this heavily as well like http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Freemasons
and others go on about oaths. Other materials and sites also discuss this in detail like
- From the “Masonic Hand Book,” page 184: “Whether you swear or take God’s name in vain does not matter so much.
- The meaning of Masonry by W.L. Wilmshurst (Past Provincial Grand Registrar, Masonic Lodge.)
- Morals and Dogma by Albert Pike (The Prince Adept, Mystic, Poet, and Scholar of Freemasonry)
- Encyclopedia of Freemasonry by Albert Mackey Several other works written by leading masons
Refer to Encyclopedia of Freemasonry by Mackey, under the article on “Religion.” Dr. Mackey discusses fully the right of Masonry to be called a “religious institution.” Dr. Mackey gives in full Webster’s definition of “religion”
Lexicon of Freemasonry by Mackey, page 404: “The religion then of Masonry is pure theism on which its different members engraft their peculiar opinions, but they are not permitted to introduce them into the Lodge or to connect their truth or falsehood with the truth of Masonry.”
Dr. J.D. Buck, M.D., 32nd Degree, says in the “Mystic Masonry”, pages 113, 114: “Masonry is not only a universal science, but a world-wide religion, and owes allegiance to one creed, and can adopt no such sectarian dogma as such without ceasing thereby to be Masonic…that “Masonry is; the universal religion only because and only as long as it embraces all religions.”
Webb’s Monitor of Freemasonry, by Robert Morris, page 280, reads as follows: “So broad is the religion of Masonry, and so carefully are all sectarian tenets excluded from the system, that the Christian, the Jew and the Mohammedan, in all their numberless sects and divisions, may and do harmoniously combine in its moral and intellectual work with the Buddhist, the Parsee, and Confucian, and worshipper of deity under every form.”
Digest of Masonic Law, pages 207-209, reads: “Masonry has nothing whatsoever to do with the Bible, that it is not founded on the Bible, for if it were it would not be Masonry, it would be something else.”
Albert Pike, in Morals and Dogma, page 11, read: “The Bible is an indispensable part of the furniture of a Christian lodge, only because it is the sacred book of the Christian religion. The Hebrew Pentateuch is a Hebrew Lodge, and the Koran in the Mohammedan belongs on the altar; and one of these, and the square and compass, properly understood, are the great lights by which a Mason must walk.”
“Masonic Handbook, page 74: ”If your wife, or child, or friend, should ask you anything about your initiation – as, for instance, if your clothes were taken off, if you were blindfolded, if you had a rope around your neck, etc., you must conceal… Hence, of course, you must deliberately lie about it. It is part of your obligation, nevertheless. But, you know if you live in strict obedience to your obligation, you will be free from sin.”
“Masonic Handbook” page 183: “Whenever you see any of our signs made by a brother Mason, and especially the Grand Hailing Sign of distress, you must always be sure to obey them, even at the risk of your life. If you are on a jury and the defendant is a Mason and makes the Grand Hailing Sign, you must obey it. You must disagree with your brother jurors if necessary, but you must be sure not to bring the Mason guilty, for that would bring disgrace upon our order. It may be perjury, to be sure, to do this; but then you are fulfilling your obligation and you know if you live up to your obligations, you will be free from sin.”
“Masonic Handbook”, page 184: “If you cheat, wrong, or defraud any other society or individual, it is entirely your own business. If you cheat the government even, Masonry cannot and will not touch you, but be very careful not to cheat, wrong, or defraud a brother Mason or a Lodge, whoever else you may defraud; live up to your obligation, and you will be free from sin.”
“Masonic Handbook”, page 183: “You must conceal all the crimes of your brother Masons, except murder and treason, and these only at your own options. Should you be summoned as a witness against a brother Mason be always sure to shield him. Prevaricate, don’t tell whole truth in this case, keep his secrets, and forget the most important points. It may be perjury to do this, it is true, but you are keeping your obligation and remember if you live up to your obligation strictly, you will be free from sin.”
“Masonic Handbook”, page 184 – The Chastity Covenant of the Master Mason: “Furthermore, that I will not violate the chastity of a Master Mason’s wife, mother, sister or daughter, knowing them to be such. This gives you full permission, my dear sir, to do as you please outside of the Masonic order, but you must always respect the female relatives of Masons.”
OATHS AND OBLIGATIONS History of Initiation, page 82: “These rites,” he says, “were known under the high and significant appellation of the mysteries, and even in them subdivision had been made, because it was thought dangerous to entrust the ineffable secrets to any but a select few, who were prepared for a new accession of acknowledge by processes at once seductive and austere, and bound to secrecy by fearful oaths and penalties of the most sanguinary character. Death shall be his penalty, who divulges the mysteries.”
- First Degree Oath: “I do most solemnly and sincerely promise and swear, without the least equivocation, mental reservation, or self evasion of mind in me whatever; binding myself under no less penalty than to have my throat cut across, my tongue torn out by the roots, and my body buried in the rough sands of the sea at low water mark, where the tide ebbs and flows twice in twenty four hours; so help me God, and keep me steadfast in the due performance of the same.”
- Second or Fellow Craft Degree: “I do most solemnly and sincerely promise and swear without the least hesitation, mental reservation, or self evasion of mind in me whatsoever; binding myself under no less penalty than to have my left breast torn open and my heart and vitals taken from thence and thrown over my left shoulder and carried into the valley of Jehosphat, there to become a prey to wild beast of the field, and vultures of the air, if ever I should prove willfully guilty of violating any part of this my solemn oath or obligation of a fellow craft mason; so help me God, and keep me steadfast in the due performance of the same.”
- Third or Master Degree: “I do most sincerely promise and swear, with a fixed and steady purpose of mind in me to keep and perform the same, binding myself under no less penalty than to have my body severed in two in the midst, and divided to the north and south, and my bowels burnt to ashes in the center, and the ashes scattered before the four winds of heaven, that there might not the least track or trace of remembrance remain among men, or masons, of so vile and perjured a wretch as I should be, were I ever to prove willfully guilty of violating any part of this my solemn oath or obligation of a Master Mason. So help me God, and keep me steadfast in the due performance of the same.” Masons entering the ancient Arabic order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine (Shriners) are required to take their vows on the faith of a Moslem…”On my voluntary desire, uninfluenced and of free accord do hereby assume, without reserve, the obligations of the nobility of the Mystic Shrine, as did the elect of the Temple of Mecca, the Moslem and the Mohammedan. I do hereby, upon the Bible, and on the mysterious legend of the Koran, and its dedication to the Mohammedan faith, promise and swear and vow on the faith and honor of an upright man, come weal or woe, adversity or success, that I will never reveal any secret part or portion whatsoever of the ceremonies I have already received…(this oath is very long and carries a terrible penalty)…In willful violation whereof may I incur the fearful penalty of having my eyeballs pierced to the center with a three-edged blade, my feet flayed and I be forced to walk the hot sand upon the sterile shores of the Red Sea until the flaming sun shall strike me with a livid plague, and may Allah, the god of Arab Moslem, and Mohammedan, the god of our fathers, support me to the entire fulfillment of the same.